Condroma

Chondroma: Benign Tumor of Cartilage in Bones

Chondroma is a benign cartilage tumor that often affects the short bones of the hands and feet (fig. 18). Essentially, it is a mass that forms from cartilaginous tissue. It can appear as a single lesion or, in more severe cases, affect several bones, forming what is known as enchondromatosis.

Unilateral enchondromatosis is a specific form of bone dysplasia, called Ollier’s disease (fig. 19a; 19b; 19c), characterized by the presence of multiple chondromas on one side of the body. On the other hand, Maffucci Syndrome is an even rarer condition, characterized by the presence of multiple enchondromas associated with hemangiomas.

Although less common, chondroma can also develop in long bones, such as the distal femur (fig. 20), proximal humerus and tibia. In these locations, the differential diagnosis between chondroma and other conditions, such as bone infarction and central chondrosarcoma, can be challenging. Bone infarction, generally painless, can be detected by radiographic examinations, while central chondrosarcoma is symptomatic, with erosion of the internal cortical bone. In these cases, clinical and radiographic observation is crucial before any therapeutic intervention.

Radiographically, the chondroma usually appears as an area of ​​rarefaction, which may present points of calcification and eventually cause bone deformities.

Typical treatment for chondroma involves curettage of the lesion and, if necessary, bone grafting. When the chondroma affects the external surface of the bones, it is known as juxtacortical chondroma and is generally treated with surgical parietal resection (fig. 21).

In short, chondroma is a benign condition, but its presence and behavior must be carefully monitored and treated to avoid complications.

Author: Prof. Dr. Pedro Péricles Ribeiro Baptista

 Orthopedic Oncosurgery at the Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho Cancer Institute

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