Diagnóstico de Tumores Ósseos

Diagnosis of Bone Tumors

Guide to assessment and procedures

Introduction:

When bone neoplasia is suspected, it is crucial to carry out a thorough analysis, using a multidisciplinary approach that includes clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, imaging methods and anatomopathological examination. This process is essential for an accurate diagnosis, which will guide the appropriate therapeutic approach for each case.

Analysis Parameters:

Several aspects must be considered during the analysis of the bone lesion, including the identification of the compromised bone, the number of lesions, the specific location in the bone and the limits of the lesion. Furthermore, characteristics such as the nature of the lesion (osteolytic or osteogenic), the presence of calcifications and the type of periosteal reaction are essential for the differential diagnosis.

Diagnostic Methods:

There are different study methods for pathological examination, including cytology, puncture biopsy, incisional biopsy and frozen section biopsy, ultrasound-guided biopsy or tomography. Each method has its specific indications and it is important to select the most appropriate one for each case, taking into account the location and nature of the injury.

Microscopic Study:

The fragments obtained by biopsy must be analyzed microscopically, using special stains and immunohistochemical techniques, when necessary. These analyzes allow the precise identification of the type of neoplasm and its origin, guiding appropriate treatment.

Surgical Parts:

Analysis of surgical specimens is essential to assess the extent of the neoplasia, the response to preoperative therapy and the need for adequate surgical margins. Procedures such as grading the response to chemotherapy are essential to determine the prognosis and subsequent therapeutic plan.

In summary, the diagnosis of bone tumors requires a comprehensive approach that includes careful evaluation of clinical data, imaging methods, and pathological analysis. Only through a detailed and integrated analysis is it possible to obtain an accurate diagnosis and guide the appropriate treatment for each patient.

Author: Prof. Dr. Pedro Péricles Ribeiro Baptista

 Orthopedic Oncosurgery at the Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho Cancer Institute

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